Мост ватерлоо

References

  1. The granite came from quarries at Mabe in Cornwall; Mee, Arthur (1937) Cornwall. London: Hodder & Stoughton, p. 132
  2. Jay, Ricky (1987) Learned Pigs and Fireproof Women: Unique, Eccentric and Amazing Entertainers: Stone Eaters, Mind Readers, Poison Resisters, Daredevils, Singing Mice, etc., etc, etc., etc.. New York: Villard Books, p. 150. ISBN 0-394-53750-5
  3. Brewer, Ebenezer (1970) Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. London: Cassell, p. 152.
  4. Faraday, Michael Experimental Researches in Electricity, Vol. 1, London, 1839, p. 55.
  5. ^ Hopkins, Henry (1970). A Span of Bridges. Newton Abbot, England: David and Charles. pp. 257–260.
  6. Sutcliffe, Anthony (2006). London: An Architectural History. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. p. 212.
  7. Life in the War:BBC documentary
  8. Haworth, Dianne (2007). Paddy the Wanderer. Auckland, New Zealand: Harper Collins. pp. 158–159.
  9. Neil Mitchell (11 May 2012). World Film Locations: London. Intellect. ISBN 184150484X.

география

Waterloo Мост Чарльз Дин , 1821

Южный конец моста находится в районе , известном как South Bank , который включает в себя Royal Festival Hall , станция Waterloo , Queen Elizabeth Hall и Национальный театр Royal , а также BFI Southbank , который находится прямо под мостом.

В северной части моста проходит над набережной Виктории , где дорога соединяет Strand и Aldwych наряду Сомерсет — Хаус . Этот конец размещался южный портал Кингсуэя Трэмвого метро до конца 1950 — х лет.

Весь мост был дан класс II * перечисленные структуры защиты в 1981 году.

Ближайшее метро Лондона станции Waterloo , ближайшая Национальная железнодорожная станция London Waterloo .

В популярной культуре

  • Роберт Шервуд игра «s Waterloo Bridge (1930), история солдата , который влюбляется и женится на женщине , которую он встречает на мосту в воздушном налете во время Первой мировой войны, был сделан в фильмах , выпущенных в 1931 году , и . Второй из этих версий фильма снимались Вивьен Ли и Роберт Тейлор .
  • «После обеда», стихотворение Венди Коуп о двух влюбленных расставание на мосту Ватерлоо, в настоящее время является лирические песни «Мост Ватерлоо» по Джулс Холланд и Луизы Маршалл.
  • Особенности моста в фильме «Окно в Лондоне» (1940). Герой, которого играет Майкл Редгрейв , является водитель автокрана , который работает на строительстве моста. Изображения можно увидеть из — за неполное перестроение в стадии разработки .
  • Функции моста в сценах в начале и в конце фильма Alfie (1966), в главной роли Майкл Кейн . В финальной сцене фильма главный герой виден через мост , за которым следует паразитной собака.
  • Песня « Waterloo Sunset » британской группы The Kinks рассказывает о жизни в Лондоне и наблюдая жизнь с моста Ватерлоо.
  • Сцена в « Большой игре », эпизод телесериала BBC Sherlock , проходит под северную сторону моста, где члены сети Шерлока бездомных информаторов скопления людей .
  • Функции моста в заключительной сцене в 1996 фильме игле .
  • Мост является оригинальной росписи расположение Бэнкси граффити искусства 2004 года воздушный шар Девочка , созданный на южном берегу в 2004 году.

CHAPTER 3 — WATERLOO BRIDGE

Until the beginning of the 19th century there was only one bridge,
Blackfriars, between Westminster and London Bridges. The erection of
Westminster Bridge had given a stimulus to building development in
Lambeth and in 1809 prospects were sufficiently good to encourage a commercial company to obtain an Act of Parliament
toll bridge, to be called the Strand Bridge, from Westminster to Lambeth.
The position chosen was the point at which the river bends sharply eastward,
and provision was made for an approach road on the south side from the
Obelisk at the junction of Westminster Bridge Road and Blackfriars Road.

Mr. John Rennie was appointed engineer and the first stone of the
bridge was laid on 11th October, 1811. Although the enabling Act was
exceptionally long and detailed, two more Acts were obtained (in 1813 and
1816) before the bridge was completed. The second of these enacted that
the name should be changed to Waterloo Bridge as “a lasting Record of the
brilliant and decisive Victory achieved by His Majesty’s Forces in conjunction
with those of His Allies, on the Eighteenth Day of June One thousand
eight hundred and fifteen.” The bridge was opened by the Prince Regent
in 1817, on the second anniversary of the battle of Waterloo. The cost of
the structure was £618,000 and the total cost of the bridge and approaches
was £937,391 11s 6d. As a commercial speculation the undertaking was far from
being a success since, in order to avoid payment of tolls, many people who
would otherwise have used the bridge made a detour to cross the river by
Blackfriars or Westminster Bridges, which were free. Under the provisions
of the Metropolitan Toll Bridges Act, 1877, the bridge was acquired by the
Metropolitan Board of Works at a cost of £474,200 and freed from toll.

The bridge was of grey Cornish granite of nine elliptical arches of
120 feet span, the total length between the abutments being 1,240 feet.
The width between the parapets was 42 feet.

The approaches, built on brick arches, extended almost level as far
as the Strand to the north and sloped down to the level of York Road on the
south bank.

The continuity of the balustrading and entablatures each side of the
bridge was broken by projecting rectangular embrasures (Plate 5a). The
embrasures had solid parapets and stood on coupled Greek Doric columns
above the cutwaters.

The simple austere style of the bridge harmonised with that of
Somerset House and formed a fitting foreground for the view of the dome of
St. Paul’s. The Italian sculptor, Canova, described it as “the finest bridge
in all Europe.”

In 1882–4 works were undertaken to protect the foundations which
were becoming exposed by the scour of the river. Waterloo Bridge had a
longer life than most Thames bridges but in 1923 a settlement in the pier
on the Lambeth side of the central arch and subsidences in the parapet and
carriageway gave warning that the structure was in a dangerous condition.
Remedial measures were taken but proved unsuccessful, and the bridge was
closed to traffic on 11th May, 1924. A temporary bridge was constructed
and for the next ten years controversy raged as to the fate of the old bridge.
There were three serious alternatives: (1) that the old bridge should be
strengthened and repaired and a modern bridge built at Charing Cross;
(2) that the bridge should be rebuilt to the old design but made wider to
take a greater volume of traffic; or (3) that a modern bridge should be built
in place of the old. Finally, in 1934, the London County Council decided
to go ahead with the erection of a modern bridge, but it was not until 1936
that Parliament at last gave the Council authority to borrow money for the
purpose. The new bridge was partially opened to traffic in 1942, but was not
formally opened until December, 1945. Its cost was approximately
£ 1,000,000.

The engineers responsible for the demolition of the old bridge and
the design and construction of the new one were Messrs. Rendel, Palmer &
Tritton in association with the Council’s Chief Engineer, Sir Peirson Frank.
The collaborating architect was Sir Giles Gilbert Scott.

  • Robert E. Sherwood’s play Waterloo Bridge (1930), the story of a soldier who falls in love and marries a woman he meets on the bridge in an air raid during the First World War, was made into films released in , and . The second of these film versions starred Vivien Leigh and Robert Taylor.
  • «After the Lunch», a poem by Wendy Cope about two lovers parting on Waterloo Bridge, now forms the lyric of the song «Waterloo Bridge» by Jools Holland and Louise Marshall.
  • The bridge features in the film “A Window in London” (1940). The hero, played by Michael Redgrave, is a crane driver who is working on the construction of the bridge. Images can be seen of the incomplete rebuilding work in progress.
  • The bridge features in scenes at the beginning and end of the film Alfie (1966), starring Michael Caine. In the final scene of the film the title character is seen crossing the bridge followed by a stray dog.
  • The song «Waterloo Sunset» by the British band The Kinks tells of living in London and watching life from Waterloo Bridge.
  • A scene in «The Great Game», an episode of the BBC television series Sherlock, takes place beneath the bridge’s northern side, where members of Sherlock’s network of homeless informants congregate.
  • The bridge features in the closing scene of the 1996 film Trainspotting.
  • The bridge is the original mural location of the Banksy 2004 graffiti artwork Balloon Girl, created on the South Bank in 2004.[citation needed]
  • According to the composer himself, during the final episode of Everybody’s Kitchen, this is the place that inspired «Kiss The Rain», a piano piece by Korean pianist Yiruma, as it was on his way to King’s College London while he studied university.
  • The bridge is mentioned in the book Cloud Atlas by the character Robert Frobisher.

Железнодорожный мост в Аржантее, 1873

Продажа:,Цена:Провенанс:«Я лично знаком с некоторыми из этих несносных импрессионистов. Все они очаровательные молодые люди,искренне убежденные в своей правоте и воображающие,что нашли собственный путь в искусстве. Общение с ними вызывает такую же скорбь,какую я испытал недавно,поглядев в Бисетре на беднягу сумасшедшего. Зажав в левой руке лопату,он упер один ее конец себе в подбородок наподобие скрипки и водил по ней палкой,словно смычком,уверяя окружающих,что исполняет „Венецианский карнавал“ — вещь,которая,по его словам,принесла ему бешеный успех среди знатоков. Следовало бы поставить этого виртуоза перед входом на выставку — тогда балаган на улице Ле-Пелетье обрел бы полную завершенность»,Жан-Батист Фор,,Гюстав Кайботт,О картине:пейзажРазвитие жанра от древности до наших дней: как религия и изобретение техники масляной живописи способствовали становлению жанра в Европе и почему так важна река Гудзон? Читать дальше

,,,,,,,,,,,

Фото и описание

Мост, прославленный знаменитым фильмом «Мост Ватерлоо», соединяет Вестминстер и Ламбет и находится прямо на изгибе Темзы. Вид с него считается лучшим из всех лондонских видов с уровня земли: на западе кварталы Вестминстер и Саус-Бэнк, гигантское Око Лондона, на востоке – небоскрёбы Сити и Кэнэри-Уорф.

Мост, который стоял здесь раньше, был построен Джоном Ренни и открыт в 1817 году 18 июня, в день второй годовщины битвы при Ватерлоо. Сооружение, состоявшее из девяти эллиптических арок корнишского гранита, украшенных дорическими колоннами, вызвало всеобщее восхищение. Мостом любовался во время визита в Англию император России Александр I, мост писали Констебль и Моне.

Вместе с тем он стал притягивать самоубийц – в 1840 году 15 процентов всех самоубийств в Лондоне приходилось на Ватерлоо. Он был платной переправой, и многие предпочитали сделать крюк, но перейти Темзу по соседним бесплатным мостам. Это делало Ватерлоо сравнительно безлюдным и удобным как для свиданий, так и для сведения счётов с жизнью. Шотландский поэт Чарльз Маккей писал: «Для многих бедных девушек свидание над одной аркой моста Ватерлоо является лишь прелюдией к роковому прыжку с другой».

В 1841 году на мосту произошёл ужасный случай с Сэмюэлем Гилбертом Скоттом – американцем, зарабатывавшим на жизнь опасными трюками. Скотт собирался эффектно прыгнуть в Темзу, изображая убегающего с виселицы, но случайно повис в петле. Толпа думала, что это часть трюка, и Скотта вынули из петли слишком поздно.

Несмотря на все эти печальные обстоятельства, мост становился одним из символов города. Некий французский инженер, посетивший Лондон, писал, что если все памятники разрушатся, то «…мост Ватерлоо, построенный в центре торгового мира, будет существовать, чтобы сказать самым отдалённым поколениям: «Здесь был богатый, трудолюбивый и могущественный город».

Француз ошибся. В 1865 году удаление старого Лондонского моста изменило приливные течения вокруг Ватерлоо, чьи пирсы постепенно стали разрушаться. В 1920 году проблема стала настолько острой, что мост пришлось закрыть: стало понятно, что нужен новый.

Geography

Waterloo Bridge by Charles Deane, 1821

The south end of the bridge is in the area known as the South Bank, which includes the Royal Festival Hall, Waterloo station, Queen Elizabeth Hall and the Royal National Theatre, as well as the BFI Southbank, which is directly beneath the bridge.

The north end of the bridge passes above the Victoria Embankment where the road joins the Strand and Aldwych alongside Somerset House. This end housed the southern portal of the Kingsway Tramway Subway until the late 1950s.

The entire bridge was given Grade II* listed structure protection in 1981.

The nearest London Underground station is Waterloo, the nearest National Rail station is London Waterloo.

Architectural Description

The new Waterloo Bridge is simple in outline and without ornamentation. It is constructed of reinforced concrete with facings of Portland stone
and grey Cornish granite, the granite being recut from the masonry of the
old bridge. It has five shallow spans each of about 250 feet with a beamed
deck supported by two lines of arches. Each line of arches is in effect a
continuous beam of varying depth. Above the reeded cornice bands on each
of the plain outer surfaces at road level are simple railings and lighting
standards. The bridge has a 58 feet carriageway for six lines of traffic with
footpaths of 11 feet each side.

Geography[]

Waterloo Bridge by Charles Deane, 1821

The south end of the bridge is in the area known as the South Bank, which includes the Royal Festival Hall, Waterloo station, Queen Elizabeth Hall and the Royal National Theatre, as well as the BFI Southbank, which is directly beneath the bridge.

The north end of the bridge passes above the Victoria Embankment where the road joins the Strand and Aldwych alongside Somerset House. This end housed the southern portal of the Kingsway Tramway Subway until the late 1950s.

The entire bridge was given Grade II* listed structure protection in 1981.

The nearest London Underground station is Waterloo, the nearest National Rail station is London Waterloo.

  • Robert E. Sherwood’s play Waterloo Bridge (1930), the story of a soldier who falls in love and marries a woman he meets on the bridge in an air raid during the First World War, was made into films released in , and . The second of these film versions starred Vivien Leigh and Robert Taylor.
  • «After the Lunch», a poem by Wendy Cope about two lovers parting on Waterloo Bridge, now forms the lyric of the song «Waterloo Bridge» by Jools Holland and Louise Marshall.
  • The bridge features in the film “A Window in London” (1940). The hero, played by Michael Redgrave, is a crane driver who is working on the construction of the bridge. Images can be seen of the incomplete rebuilding work in progress.
  • The bridge features in scenes at the beginning and end of the film Alfie (1966), starring Michael Caine. In the final scene of the film the title character is seen crossing the bridge followed by a stray dog.
  • The song «Waterloo Sunset» by the British band The Kinks tells of living in London and watching life from Waterloo Bridge.
  • A scene in «The Great Game», an episode of the BBC television series Sherlock, takes place beneath the bridge’s northern side, where members of Sherlock’s network of homeless informants congregate.
  • The bridge features in the closing scene of the 1996 film Trainspotting.
  • The bridge is the original mural location of the Banksy 2004 graffiti artwork Balloon Girl, created on the South Bank in 2004.[citation needed]
  • According to the composer himself, during the final episode of Everybody’s Kitchen, this is the place that inspired «Kiss The Rain», a piano piece by Korean pianist Yiruma, as it was on his way to King’s College London while he studied university.
  • The bridge is mentioned in the book Cloud Atlas by the character Robert Frobisher.

References[]

  1. The granite came from quarries at Mabe in Cornwall; Mee, Arthur (1937) Cornwall. London: Hodder & Stoughton, p. 132
  2. Jay, Ricky (1987) Learned Pigs and Fireproof Women: Unique, Eccentric and Amazing Entertainers: Stone Eaters, Mind Readers, Poison Resisters, Daredevils, Singing Mice, etc., etc, etc., etc.. New York: Villard Books, p. 150. ISBN 0-394-53750-5
  3. Brewer, Ebenezer (1970) Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. London: Cassell, p. 152.
  4. Faraday, Michael Experimental Researches in Electricity, Vol. 1, London, 1839, p. 55.
  5. ^ Hopkins, Henry (1970). A Span of Bridges. Newton Abbot, England: David and Charles. pp. 257–260.
  6. Sutcliffe, Anthony (2006). London: An Architectural History. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. p. 212.
  7. Life in the War:BBC documentary
  8. Haworth, Dianne (2007). Paddy the Wanderer. Auckland, New Zealand: Harper Collins. pp. 158–159.
  9. Neil Mitchell (11 May 2012). World Film Locations: London. Intellect. ISBN 184150484X.

Список источников

  • artchive.ru
  • www.votpusk.ru
  • ru.qwe.wiki
  • www.british-history.ac.uk
  • wiki2.org
  • en.wikibedia.ru
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